This girl is jumping down from the veranda of Kiyomizu-dera, the temple of pure water, located in Kyôto. If she survives, her wish will be granted. Actually several people jumped down here during the Edo period, but it was pretty dangerous. The ukiyo-e was painted by Suzuki Harunobu 鈴木 春信 (1725-1770).
清水寺 is still one of the most famous temples in Japan, founded in 778 and belongs to the New Seven Wonders of the World. You will get an impressive view of the temple on their Japanese website.