Today’s post is showing a picture of Ohara Koson (小原古邨 1877ー1945). This time it is an azure-winged magpie on a magnolia tree. The blossoms are white and pink, which represents youth and innocence. The bird is a beautiful yet common bird in Japan. They are called onaga, meaning long-tail (cyanopica cyanus). Koson painted it approximately in 1931.
“The City — a bounded infinity. A labyrinth where you are never lost. Your private map where every block bears exactly the same number. Even if you lose your way, you cannot go wrong” – Abe Kôbô (1924-1993).
The Ruined Map by Abe Kôbô is a very mysterious detective story. It’s setting is in 1967 in a big Japanese city like Tokyo.
Nemuro Hiroshi, age 34, is missing for half a year. His wife has hired a detective after the police could not find him. There are no hints of her husband’s whereabouts, only a matchbox of the Camilla coffeehouse.
The husband had left no notice, but disappeared in the landscape of the big city. He should have been on a business meeting, but his wife does not know any specifics about it.
The detective has no clue whatsoever. His investigation gets stuck and wherever he is turning to, there is no answer. Even the wife is no help, but has obviously a drinking problem. So there are many scenes, when the detective is sitting with her in her dining room looking at a blinding yellow curtain, watching her drinking one beer after another. The case becomes so annoying to the detective after a while: He then himself mistrusts his client, doubting if there even is a real case. But then, there is also her mysterious brother or is he her lover? He is the only person, who seems to have some kind of information about Nemuro Hiroshi.
On the other hand investigations at the company are fruitful: a co-worker of the husband hands over a hand-drawn map, which the missing man could have used for his last appointment in duty of the company. After that encounter the detective meets also the brother of the missing person’s wife. From now on the story gets into a wild ride, where the brother ends up dead, but Nemuro Hiroshi is still missing without a trace.
The atmosphere of the story is Kafkaesque and during reading I somehow lost the track. I could not lay the book down, because I wanted to know the end. I realized in the latter half of the story, that everything dissolves in the end without a logical solution. I cannot say, that I enjoyed the reading fully through the book, but Abe Kôbô kept me interested finishing my reading.
Abe Kôbô is a well-known author in Japan. He was a main representative of the literary avant-garde in the 60’s of the 20th century. He wrote many books using surreal content structure and elements on the basis of his philosophical thoughts. Often it is not easy to read. One of his most famous works is Woman in the Dunes, but The Box Man and The Face of Another is also noteworthy.
安部 公房. 燃えつきた地図. 1967. Abe Kôbô: The Ruined Map. 1967. Translated by E. Dale Saunders.
This is a fabulous selection of Akutagawa‘s stories from his early years until his later work period including his classics and some little known works. The stories are selected and translated by Jay Rubin and the book comes with an introduction by Murakami Haruki.
Akutagawa Ryûnosuke 芥川龍之介 (1892-1927) is one of the most influential Japanese writer and was even praised during his lifetime by his contemporaries. The young Akutagawa was encouraged by Natsume Sôseki 夏目 漱石 (1867-1916) and became an idol for many Japanese authors until today. Murakami Haruki admires him since his early schooldays.
Akutagawa has written mainly short stories, a genre very popular in Japanese literature. His first stories include mainly historical themes. Rashômon and In a Bamboo Grove are rewritten folktales of the 12th and 13th century. These were made into the well-known movie Rashômon by Kurosawa Akira in 1950.
Apart from that The Nose and Hell Screen are remarkable historical tales, outstandingly and thrillingly narrated by Akutagawa. Then there are some of his tragicomedies in this collection like Under The Sword, where a samurai suffering from migraine makes a deadly mistake with his sword. In Horse Legs the reader gets to know, how a man lives with two horse‘s legs.
Akutagawa‘s early stories of his own imagination are vivid psychograms. He read a lot and was influenced by Western authors as Dostoevsky, Tolstoy, Strindberg and others, which can be seen in his works.
His later semi-auto-biographical stories are very moving and astonishingly well-observed. Especially Daidôji Shinsuke: The Early Years, The Life of a Stupid Man and Spinning Gears. Akutagawa writes here about his own family background, behaviors and manners, inner struggles and personal stories.
Akutagawa was strongly influenced by the mental illness of his mother, who became mad shortly after his birth. She was living in the same house with him, but was not able to raise her son. Constantly under psychic pressure he became sick himself and permanently feared to get mad. Akutaga killed himself by an overdose of Veronal at the age of 35. His death shocked the whole nation.
His stories are outstanding until today, combining Japanese topics and symbolism of several historical episodes, rewritten for the modern reader. Furthermore his short stories of later years give a lively insight to his suffering and daily life and can be seen as unique documents of his life.
Many of his works have been translated into English and are available in various compilations, but this book is a good starting point and gives an overview of the work of Akutagawa Ryûnosuke.
Rashômon and Seventeen Other Stories by Akutagawa Ryûnosuke, Penguin Classics 2006.
Japanese Literature in the Taishô era (1912-1926) and early Shôwa era – the development of the pre-war novel
Let me begin this post with a quotation, because it cannot be better shortly described:
“Taisho is Japan’s Jazz Age. Can it be summed up in a phrase? It often is: ero-guro-nansensu — eroticism, grotesquerie, nonsense.
All three filled the air. Was Taisho, then, mere frivolity? To cite only the plainest evidence to the contrary: World War I; the 1918 Rice Riots; “Taisho Democracy;” the founding in 1922 of the Japan Communist Party; the Great Kanto Earthquake of 1923; the granting of universal manhood suffrage in 1925; and the repressive Peace Preservation Law passed barely two months later … ” there is much turbulance in the Taishô era and the article of Michael Hoffmann is summing it up very well.
The great earthquake of 1923 in the Kantô region around Tokyo was a disaster: For many month the life of the metropolis was interrupted. The economy crashed and the effect was also felt in the publishing industry. The devastation had an impact on the literary scene as well. Authors moved from Tokyo to other cities and it took some time for new publications.
Literary magazines have been very important for the literary market in Japan. It has been usual that authors publish their works serialized in newspapers or literary magazines. Many of the well-known books were published in this manner. In 1924 some new literary magazines came into life: for example bungei sensen (literary front) by the proletarian literary movement or bungei jidai (literary era) by Kawabata Yasunari and other authors forming the “neo-sensualistic” school.
In the 1920‘s many various literary genre came up. Although it is nearly impossible to use Western categories on Japanese literature one can speak of tendencies: A literary avantgarde arose, presenting a true unique style. Tanizaki Jun‘ichirô, Shiga Naoya and Akutagawa Ryûnosuke, Yasunari Kawabata and Nagai Kafû are to be mentioned as the most prominent representatives of this group. They all have been very influential writers of this time. These authors all have been famous from the very start of their writing career and can be seen as a role model for many Japanese authors.
Women cannot be regarded as separated from the literary scene in Japan. They have been important as their male collegues. Tamura Toshiko 田村 俊子 (1884-1945) was a famous female writer, who published her stories in the literary magazine chuô kôron and shinchô regularly. She wrote about daily life, erotic aspects and relationship conflicts. Her novel Akirame (“Resignation”, 1911) won a literary prize early in her career. Nogami Yaeko 野上 弥生子(1885-1985) is more intellectual and individualistic and stands for the liberation of women in the 20’s and 30’s. She won many literary prizes after 1945. Hayashi Fumiko 林 芙美子 (1903-1951) is very famous for her early novel Hôrôki (放浪記 Vagabond’s Diary) with autobiographical background.
(Photo: Hayashi Fumiko)
Many women writer promoted the women’s liberation movement in Japan and were connected with the proletarian and left-wing movement. In this context one has to mention Sata Ineko 佐多 稲子 (1904- 1998) and Hirabayashi Taiko 平林 たい子 (1905- 1972) as well. Miyamoto Yuriko 宮本 百合子 (1899-1951) was very engaged, she was active even after 1945 in the democratization process of Japan.
All have been praised for their work in and outside of Japan.
It is not possible to mention all Japanese authors, but only a selection of the most influential persons can be made in such a short overview. Of course there are many more Japanese authors to be read and write about in the future.
Tanizaki Jun‘ichirô 谷崎 潤一郎 (1886-1965) is famous for his works characterized by aestheticism and erotic tales of strong women and sexual obsession. Tanizaki includes Western thoughts and Japanese tradition in his writings.
His career began as he founded the literary magazine Shinshichô (New Currents of Thought) with his co-authors in 1910. Here he published his first short story Shisei (刺靑The Tatooer).
Tanizaki wrote mainly novels. Many of them were translated into other languages as Naomi (Chijin no ai 痴人の愛 , 1924/25), Some Prefer Nettles (Tade kuu mushi 蓼喰う蟲, 1928/29), The Makioka Sisters (Sasameyuki 細雪, 1943-1948) , The Key (Kagi 鍵, 1956) and Diary of a Mad Old Man (Fûten rôjin nikki 瘋癲老人日記, 1960-1962), which are outstanding works.
Tanizaki also wrote an important essay about his aestheticism: In Praise of Shadows (In‘ei raisan 陰翳礼讃 , 1933/34).
From 1935 to 1965 he translated the Genji monogatari into modern Japanese and offered three different versions of it.
(Illustration: 我といふ人の心はたゝひとり われより外に知る人ハなし 潤一郎. “The heart of mine is only one, it cannot be known by anybody but myself.” Handwritten poem of Tanizaki Jun’ichirô approx. 1963).
Shiga Naoya 志賀 直哉 (1883 – 1971) is a unique Japanese writer, who founded the journal Shirakaba (White Birch). Influenced by Tolstoi he gives his own interpretations of humanism in his psychologically well observed novels of family conflicts, mostly narrated in the first person perspective (shi shôsestu – I novel) and with autobiographical subjects. His most praised novels are Wakai “Reconciliation” of 1917 and A Dark Night’s Passing. (An’ya kôro 1921-19237). He wrote many short stories. A translation of some of them are published in the anthology: The Paper Door And Other Stories.
Akutagawa Ryunosuke 芥川龍之介 (1892-1927)
He was a publisher of the literary magazine Shinshichô (New Currents of Thought) in 1914.
His short story Rashomon 羅生門 which he wrote in his student years is probably still nowadays the most famous of his works. The film of Kurosawa Akira 黒澤 明 is based on this and on Akutagawas “In A Grove” (Yabu no Naka 藪の中) .
Akutagawa was a follower of the Japanese author Natsume Sôseki. In 1916 he wrote his story “The Nose” (Hana) and became widely recognized for it. Apart from that he worked as an English-teacher and a journalist of the newspaper Ôsaka Manichi Shinbun.
Akutagawa was specialized in writing short stories of historical background giving a modern re-interpretation of for example the Konjaku monogatari. He was a brilliant author of many literary styles: he also wrote many essays and autobiographic notes. In his later life he became mentally ill and committed suicide at the age of 35.
Japanese original works are available on the Internet at aozora.
Rashômon and Seventeen Other Stories is a selection of his stories in English, and provides a good overview of his works.
Kawabata Yasunari 川端 康成 (1899- 1972) re-established the literary magazine Shinshichô (New Currents of Thought) in 1914 and was the co-founder of the magazine bungei jidai (“The Artistic Age”).
Kawabata was the son of a physician, but became unfortunately an orphan early in his life. At the age of 18 he moved to Tokyo, where he studied English and Japanese literature. His writings stand for sensualism, strong lyricism and high aestheticism.
His literary magazine represents a platform of literary experiments for Japanese authors. Kawabata first wrote many short stories which he called Palm-of-the-Hand Stories (tenoshira no shôsetsu 掌の小説). In 1926 he came up with his first novel The Dancing Girl of Izu (Izu no odoriko 伊豆の踊子). His famous novel Snow Country (Yukiguni 雪国) was serialized from 1935 to 1947.
In his later years he worked on The Master of Go (Meijin 名人), Thousand Cranes (Sembazuru 千羽鶴, 1956), The Sound of the Mountain (Yama no oto 山の音, 1969), The House of the Sleeping Beauties (眠れる美女 Nemureru bijo) and many others.
He was president of P.E.N. in Japan from 1948 to 1965. In 1968 he won the Nobel Prize for Literature as the first Japanese author.
Nagai Kafu 永井 荷風 (1879- 1959)
Nagai Kafû was the son of a high official and business man. His first short story was Sudare no tsuki (Moon behind the Bamboo grove) in 1898. His work was highly influenced by Guy de Maupassant and Émile Zola. He spent the year 1903 in the United States and 1907 in France as a student of literature. He became famous of his Amerika monogatari in 1908 and Furansu monogatari in 1909. After his return to Japan he became a professor for literature in Tokyo.
His work is regarded as aesthetic and associated with realism. His most famous novels are Sumida River (Sumidagawa すみだ川) of 1909, Geisha in Rivalry (Udekurabe 腕くらべ 1916/17) and A Strange Tale from East of the River (Bokutô kitan 濹東綺譚 1937).
Until 1932 many authors made experiments with surrealism and expressionism. The rise of nationalism in the 1930‘s, censorship and prosecution as the effect of imperialism and war policy nearly brought the literary scene to become silent. The official policy haunted liberals, democrats, proletarian and left-wing writers, put them into jail or intimidated intellectuals and free thinking minds. It took time until the end of the war after 1945 that there was a new beginning of a rich faceted Japanese literature.
There are many reading lists on the Internet. I like to read blogs, who deal with reading books. Some blogs I follow take their reading list from the Time Magazine as 101 books or from the BBC like Emily January, one blogger created his little blog of books and then there is goodreads. Good hell! A lot to read!
I love how people write about their reading and I read a lot too. Especially I am fond of Japanese literature and always interested in how Japanese books are understood by others.
When I took a look at 1001 Books You Must Read Before You Die I discovered, that it includes the following Japanese titles:
Kafka on the Shore – Murakami Haruki
After the Quake – Murakami Haruki
Sputnik Sweetheart – Murakami Haruki
The Wind-Up Bird Chronicle – Murakami Haruki
The Sea of Fertility – Mishima Yukio
Rashomon – Akutagawa Ryûnosuke
Kokoro – Natsume Sôseki
A good selection, without question, but unfortunately it refers only to seven books of four Japanese authors and includes four of seven titles of Murakami Haruki and only three other important works. I thought one has to add the two Nobel prize winners Ôe Kenzaburô (1994) and Kawabata Yasunari (1968) at least. But then we are only at six Japanese authors.
So, I thought to myself, how about making my own personal Japanese literature reading list? And here it is: now on a new page on this blog. It includes books I want to read or re-read and write a review here.
I would be happy, if you visit it once in a while, or make suggestions, what you like to read.
Have you already read one of the above mentioned Japanese titles? What is your favourite Japanese book?